Production of yogurt enriched with topinambour (helianthus tuberosus) of different fractions

УДК 637.052

The influence of different topinambour Helianthus tuberosus fractions on the organoleptic qualities of a fermented milk product (yogurt) has been determined. The point scales of organoleptic evaluation of yogurt enriched with topinambour Helianthus Tuberosus have been proposed. It has been found out, that the adding of different topinambour Helianthus tuberosus fractions influences the taste properties of the product to a great extent. Yogurt enriched with topinambour juice of medium concentration has been assigned as the best product, from the point of view of organoleptic evaluation.

Fermented milk product with lingonberry juice and oatmeal

УДК 637.146:582.912.46:664.785.8

The technology of a new fermented milk product with lingonberry juice and oatmeal has been developed. Organoleptic and rheological characteristics of the model samples have been taken into account for the recipe development. The biological value calculation has proved protein usefulness of the new product. The cost price as well as the wholesale and selling prices, confirm the expediency of producing a new product.

Fermented milk product with increased nutritional value

УДК 637.138

The article is devoted to the development of a new fermented milk drink with increased nutritional value, which is achieved through the use of crushed wheat bran and maple syrup in the recipe. The characteristics of the fillers used are presented, the doses of their application are justified, the calculations of the food and energy value of the product are carried out. It was found that product samples containing 5 % or more wheat bran are functional in terms of the content of the mineral substance manganese in them: when using a single portion of a product equal to 100 g containing 5 % wheat bran, the daily need for manganese is satisfied by 45 %. In addition, the fermented milk product with wheat bran contains 3.9 g of dietary fiber per 100 g and is their source.

Epizootic situation on parasites of small ruminants under the conditions of the Vologda region

УДК 619:616.99:636.3(470.12)

The article describes the results of a study of the parasitofauna of small ruminants in the Vologda Region. Parasitizing of 13 species of helminths belonging to 2 classes Cestoda and Nematoda has been established in sheep. Infection of sheep with helminths of Strongylata makes 16.6 to 100%. The species composition of goat helminths in the private subsidiary farms of the Vologda Region is represented by 9 types of helminths belonging to the Nematoda class.

Assessment of the current state of the dairy cattle industry in the North-Western Federal District and the Vologda Region

УДК 636.082.1

Dynamic changes in the dairy cattle industry in the North-Western Federal District and the Vologda Region require their monitoring and studying to determine promising development trends. The article presents gross milk production analysis, the dynamics of livestock and economically useful characteristics of dairy cattle in the North-Western Federal District and the Vologda Region taking into account the statistical collected works data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2020, the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, and the yearbooks for 2011-2020 on breeding dairy cattle in the Russian Federation. The number of dairy cattle has been stabilized since 2017 in the district, and since 2013 in the region. A period of cow use has been reduced in 2019 compared to 2011 by 0.32 calving in the Northwestern Federal District and by 0.15 calving in the Vologda region. There is a growth tendency in milk productivity: the milk yield of cows has increased by 2304 kg in the Northwestern Federal District, and by 2470 kg of milk in the Vologda Region in 2010-2019. The authors describe the breeding base of the district and the region by the specific weight of the breeding stock, the number of breeding farms, the level of productivity and the sales volume of breeding animals. The article gives a brief description of the breed structure of dairy cattle in the district and the region and analyzes the genetic potential of breeding bulls used in the breeding stock of dairy breeds of the Vologda region. The authors also determine the main directions in selection and breeding, which are aimed at dairy breed improvement in the region.

Dynamics of live weight and weight gains in different lines of black-motley replacement heifers of the Vologda type

УДК 636.082.35

In the conditions of the analyzed farms, studies were conducted on growing black-motley heifers of different lines. As the results of the conducted studies have shown, the live weight of heifers in all age periods of the studied lines at the analyzed enterprises is at the level of class I standard requirements or exceeds them by 6-11%. The average daily weight gains of heifers of the studied lines at the age from birth to 6 months were 690-820 g, at the age of 6-10 months – 570-810 g, at the age of 10- 12 months – 600-750 g, at the age of 12-18 months – 620-680 g. The relative weight gains of the heifers under study decreased with age; at the age from birth to 6 months the weight gain was 131-142%, from 6 to10 months – 31-48%, from 10 to 12 months – 10.4-16.5%.

The influence of the phase of the growing season on the mineral composition of the narrow-leaved fireweed

УДК 633.2:582.886

In the experiments the mineral composition of narrow-leaved fireweed was studied in different phases of its growing season in the conditions of the NorthWestern region of Russia in the Vologda region. It was experimentally established that narrow-leaved fireweed is a promising forage plant in the North-Western zone of Russia. It can meet the needs of lactating cows in macro-and microelements, except sodium, zinc, copper and cobalt. Taking into account the fact that there is a lack of phosphorus in the plant feeds of the Vologda region, using narrow-leaved fireweed for feed will to some extent compensate for its lack in the dairy cattle diet. The dynamics of the mineral content in the plants of narrow-leaved fireweed in dry matter is: the growth of the stem – macroelements; calcium – 7.53 g/kg, phosphorus – 7.36, magnesium –3.42, sodium – 0.17, potassium – 20.8 g/kg. Microelements: zinc – 47.5 mg/kg, copper – 5.39, cobalt – 0.25, iron – 129 mg/kg of dry matter of the plant. It is established that the chemical composition of fireweed changes in the process of development and growth. Therefore, when feeding the green mass to cattle, as well as when harvesting raw materials from it for the production of various feeds (hay, haylage, silage, grass meal), it is necessary to take into account the optimal content of macro- and microelements in its plants, which will allow to better balance the rations of cattle in mineral nutrition and get higher productivity from animals.

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry growth and development effected from feeding with Enzimsporin supplement

УДК 639.3.043.003

The present research has shown the growth and development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry effected from feeding Enzimsporin probiotic supplement. During the observation period, the weight of tilapia fry population has increased from 119.5g to 619g in the control group, from 121g to 684g in the 1st experimental group 1 and from 119g to 790g in the 2nd experimental group. Thus, the average daily weight gain per fish is 0.44g, 0.51g and 0.6g, respectively in 22 days. During the observation period an increase in body weight of one fish averaged 3.29±1.63g in the control group, 3.75±1.32g in the 1st experimental group and 4.47±2.40g in 2nd experimental group. During the research period the fry in the 2nd experimental group has shown the highest increase in ichthyomass at the end of the experiment, 9.26g (p≤0.05), which is 2.8g (69.53%) more than in the control group. In the 1st experimental group, the increase is 3.23 g (p≤0.05), which has exceeded the indicators of the control group by 0.8 g (75.23%). The outline fish indicators correspond to the general statistical values of tilapia fry development in the given age period.

Selection and genetic parameters in the selection of dairy cattle

УДК 636.08.003

Studies were conducted to study the variability and correlation of indicators of dairy productivity of cattle in the conditions of breeding enterprises of the Omsk region, as well as the optimal size of the breeding group was determined on the basis of the Pareto diagram. It was found that the coefficient of variation of milk yield in cows of the red steppe breed was 23.4 %, which is 4.3% more than in cows of the black-and-white breed. To form breeding groups in breeding farms in the region, they must have a milk yield of at least 7000 kg of milk. Among the available livestock, the specific weight of animals of the desired quality is 6 % for the red steppe and 6.6% for the black-and-white breeds.

Еffictiveness of insecticides in crops sinapis alba

УДК 632.377/08:632.93

On crops of white mustard on sod-slightly podzolic soil with a humus content of 2.6%, pests were registered: pests of beetles, bugs, and aphids. High efficiency of Sumi-alpha, EC was revealed with a consumption rate of 0.2 l/ha on the 20th day after treatment, the effectiveness against flea beetles, rape flower beetles, bugs and aphids was 92.6%, 93.4%, 97.5% and 98.5%, respectively.

Assessment of phagocytic activity of tilapia blood cells under hormone-induced stress

УДК 639.215.2:574.24./625

The paper presents an assessment of the phagocytic ability of blood cells of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. under the hormonal induction of stress with range of duration. It has been revealed that Staphylococcus aureus is phagocytosed by leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes of tilapia blood in direct smears. The phagocytic capacity of the cells has been quantified. It has been found that long-term exposure to stress has an immunosuppressive effect on the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and an immunostimulating effect on the phagocytic activity of erythrocytes (60-minute incubation) by the end of the experiment in comparison with other groups. Short-term exposure to stress increases the activity of leukocytes and decreases the activity of erythrocytes (60- minute incubation) for 7 days after exposure.

Increasing the bioadaptive potential of a dairy herd of cows in the production of milk

УДК 636.2.034:636.08.003

The conducted production studies on seeking on-farm reserves of dairy production in the conditions of the large-scale specialized agricultural farm of the joint stock company ‘Valishche’ of the Pinsk district allowed us to find ways to improve the existing technology. The innovative device is a modification of milking equipment of farms by using three-sided teat cup liners in the suspension part of ‘Impulse IP15-AIR’ equipment when milking cows in milking parlors, which allows to more fully reveal the bioadaptive potential of animals, increase the dairy herd productivity, while optimizing the cost of agricultural products and increasing the profitability of milk production by 5.73 percentage points (up to 24.84 %) compared to the control group of animals.

Influence of diatomaceous earth and its combinations with poultry manure on soil fertility and crop productivity

УДК 631.82:631.559

The effect and aftereffect of various norms of silicon-containing agricultural ore (diatomite) on the content of humus, nutrition elements, exchange acidity, the fractional composition of water-bearing aggregates in the arable layer of gray forest soil and the productivity of corn and spring wheat were studied. Studies have found that the most significant effect on the increase in the content of humus, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and potassium, a decrease in metabolic acidity was caused by the introduction of diatomite in combination with bird droppings. It was found that the maximum increase in the total number of waterbearing aggregates in the arable layer of gray forest soil against the background of the action and aftereffect of diatomite in combination with bird droppings is mainly due to an increase in the number of water-bearing aggregates ranging in size from 1.0 to 0.25 mm. The highest effect on the productivity of corn and spring wheat was provided by the complex use of diatomite with bird droppings. The productivity of corn against their background increased by 47.7-59.6 %, the productivity of spring wheat by 26.8-35.4 %

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