The influence of fertilizers on the removal of nutrients by crop rotation in the Vologda region

УДК 631.811:631.559

The productivity of crop rotation on soddy podzolic loam soil in the stationary experience during 2015-2017 was high in the conditions of the Vologda region, especially among annual crops. Winter rye and potatoes also differed by consistently high yield and productivity during the years of research. All the studied cultures showed good responsiveness to fertilizers, especially the calculated doses of their application. The average productivity of crop rotation was 3.30-6.34 tonne cu / ha. Minimum doses of fertilizers increased the productivity of crops by 1.02 tons of cu / ha, and calculated ones - by 72-90% compared with the control. Removal of nutrients with crop yields increased with the use of fertilizers. Different doses of fertilizers increased the removal of nitrogen 1.4-2.3 times, phosphorus - 1.4-2.0 times and potassium 1.4-2.5 times compared with the control. Calculated doses of fertilizers provided the greatest removal of nutrients, because the yield on these options was significantly higher than on the control and when using fertilizers only during sowing and planting. This affected the balance of nutrients in the soil. KB of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were higher than the planned values, respectively, by 15-34%, 23-36 and 12-21%. When fertilizers were applied on average for crop rotation in doses of 93kg AI / ha of nitrogen, 41 phosphorus and 136-165 kg AI / ha of potassium, respectively, a negative balance of nutrients was observed.

Studying of Starter Composition Effect on Properties of Fermented Products Based on Buttermilk and Milk Whey Concentrates

УДК 637.146.3

The research on starter population selection for fermented products manufacture on combined milk base with buttermilk and milk whey concentrates has been conducted. The physical and chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic properties of the products have been studied. A combined starter with a ratio of starter cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophiles, Bifidobacterium equal to 1: 1: 3 has been selected.

Sampling of feed for farm animals as an important stage of their analysis. Selection methods and tools

УДК 631.171

Sampling is an important part of feed analysis and the reliability of measurement results depends on how it is performed. It’s impossible to correct the errors occurring due to incorrect sampling in the future, and researches no matter how accurate they are, become meaningless. Modern feed sampling is a whole system of organizational and technological measures that must be performed to obtain and maintain a representative (i.e., reflecting the average value of all the characteristics of the entire batch of material) sample. To ensure the methodically correct sampling of silage and haylage from closed trenches, which would reflect the quality of all the feed laid in the trench at the entire depth of its storage, it is necessary to use special technical means - samplers. The article contains an analysis of the regulatory requirements for the selection process, as well as an overview of modern technical means and designs of samplers. To increase efficiency and to reduce the complexity of sampling, based on the new method of selection of plant samples (patent No. 2651175 2018.) the authors developed silage and haylage sampler with electromechanical drive. The sampler is simple in design and use.

The review of technological design standards associated with dairy farms

УДК 631.22

The design documentation for renovation of old dairy farms and construction of new ones should be developed in accordance with the requirements of current national standards set out in recommendations, manuals, etc. When preparing project documents of cattle farms designers often face the problem of existing standards non-compliance with the new requirements to livestock production. For example the box length for highly productive animals is insufficient; this fact has a negative effect on their rest period and productivity. The applicable standards related to technological design of livestock facilities need to be revised.

Substantiation of Installation Parameters of Additional Soil Tilling Implements in Plowing Units due to the Movement of the Furrow Slice on the Surfaces of the Plough Body

УДК 631.363

The article represents the equation of furrow slice movement along the moldboard depending on the speed of the unit, it characterizes the curvature of the angle trajectory, the gravity force of the furrow slice, the applied traction force and the resistance force caused by rehandling of the furrow slice particles as it rolls up along the moldboard. Analytical expressions are obtained for determining the time of the furrow slice movement along the moldboard, the coordinates of the furrow slice fall on the field surface and the estimation of the fall time. The results can be used in the field of agricultural engineering in the design of reversible ploughs and additional implements for soil surface treatment.

The dynamics of number, indices of productivity and economic use in the breed populations of dairy cattle

УДК 636.2.082

The article presents the results of monitoring the number of livestock, the indices of dairy cows productivity and the period of their economic use in the populations of Ayrshire, Holstein, Kholmogory, Black and White, Yaroslavl breeds in all categories of farms of the Vologda region. Based on the data from yearbooks on breeding on dairy cattle breeding farms of the Russian Federation the dynamics in the number of evaluated cattle and cows according to their breed populations for 2012-2016 has been defined. The reduction of the total population by 17.51 thousand heads has been revealed, which amounted to 96.66 thousand heads and in cows the reduction by 4.41 thousand heads has been noted, which amounted to 62.34 thousand heads. A similar trend is observed in all breed populations. On the basis of the data on cows productivity the increase in milk yield in different breeds ranging from 294 to 1242 kg of milk has been defined. The indices of fat and protein content were changing during the analyzed period in the populations depending on the breed. There was a trend of decreasing the age of cows in calvings. For five years the average age of cows decreased from 2.88 to 2.80 calvings. Similar dynamics is observed in the dropping the animals out of the herd. The reduction of the period of using cows for all breeds ranged from 3.78 to 3.76 calvings. In the population of Black and White breed the period of economic use decreased by 0.12 calvings. Therefore, improving dairy cattle populations in the Vologda region should be directed to increasing the age of cows in calvings. Special attention should be paid to breeding the animals of Black and White breed numerous populations with the aim of increasing the period of their economic use.

Morphofunctional parameters of platelets in dogs of different age with parvoviral enteritis

УДК 619:616-07:636.7

The paper presents the results of the study of morphofunctional parameters of platelets in dogs with parvovirus enteritis at different ages. The most strongly expressed change of platelet parameters at parvovirus infection is in puppies aged 2 to 6 months. On the third day of the disease the number of platelets decreases and platelet disaggregation index under the action of ristomycin as well. On the fifth day of the disease there is a progressive decrease in the number of platelets with a decrease in platelet crit (PCT) and an increase in mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet disaggregation decreases under the influence of collagen and ristomycin, which is a sign of increased functional platelets activity, and in particular its vascular component. Changes of platelet parameters in the groups of dogs older than 6 months appear only on the 5. day of illness and are expressed by a reduction of disaggregation under the action of ADP.

Changes in Milk Productivity Using the Feed Concentrate “Urga” in the Diet of Highly Productive Cows

УДК 636.2.087.7

The results of research in milk productivity of lactating cows using the feed concentrate “Urga”, products of the EM series (LLC “EM-cooperation”) were analyzed. The received the feed concentrate “Urga” animals had higher monthly milk yield, the amount of milk produced in terms of base fat and protein, higher level of realization of productive capacity, which pointes out the feasibility in developing a feeding program and increasing the efficiency of milk production.

The effect of yeast products on the milk production of cows

УДК 636.2.084

The article presents the study results of the effect of the yeast supplements “Optisaf” and “Progut Rumen” on the productivity and quality milk indicators from highly productive cows. It has been established that at the doses recommended by the manufacturer, their use improves the eatability of feed of the basic diet, increases the milk productivity and leads to an increase in the mass fraction of fat.

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