Efficiency increase of protein membrane separation from whey for food products

УДК 637.146.4

The paper proposes to expand whey using in food products that has unique characteristics and contains essential nutrients. Proteins are currently obtained by whey ultrafiltration through polymer membranes which characterized by insufficient efficiency and durability. To improve the efficiency of the technology the method for isolating whey proteins using tangential ultrafiltration in tubular ceramic membranes with their continuous regeneration is proposed.

Investigation of the effect of cereal flour on the properties of low-fat functional products

УДК 637.14

The effect of vegetable fillers on the properties of the fermented milk clot was studied. On the basis of the studies carried out, the dependence of the waterholding capacity of flour of leguminous crops on syneresis was determined. On the basis of organoleptic descriptors, a rating has been created and score scales for organoleptic assessment have been developed. It was determined that the application of flour of leguminous crops has a greater effect on the indicators of taste and consistency. The best rheological characteristics were observed with the addition of barley flour.

Obtaining a probiotic consortium based on strains isolated from cow’s milk

УДК 612.39:579.864:579.67

For the prevention and normalization of the microbiota, the imbalance of which leads to a violation of the healthy state of the body, the use of probiotics is promising, and therefore, their development. This work is aimed at creating a probiotic consortium. In the course of the study, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei were isolated, on the basis of which various consortia were assembled. The results showed that a consortium consisting of L. plantarum, L. casei, L. acidophilus in a ratio of 3:1:1, had the maximum accumulation of cell biomass for a specified time, showed antibiotic activity against a number of pathogenic and opportunistic strains, resistance to the action of antibiotics and to the unfavorable conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to use the consortium as a probiotic and use it in the food industry, it is planned to study the nature and activity of its cellular metabolites, and study its technological properties in the future.

Selection and genetic parameters of productive traits and exterior features of black-and-white cattle in Western Siberia


The article presents materials on the selection and genetic indicators of black-and-white cattle. The amount of repeatability allows for selection by productive qualities already in the first lactation. There was a significant negative moderate relationship between the mass fraction of fat and milk yield for 305 days of lactation (- 0.308; Р>0,999). There is a tendency of negative weak dependence between the milk yield and the mass fraction of protein, namely, the increase in milk yield is accompanied by a slight decrease in protein content. A weak positive relationship was established between the mass fraction of protein and the mass fraction of fat in milk yield for 305 days of lactation (0.255; P>0.999). It follows that unilateral selection by the mass fraction of protein can increase the fat content. The heritability coefficient of milk yield was 0.266, fat mass fraction - 0.403, protein mass fraction - 0.082. Exterior features of livestock have been established.

The Quality of Silage Made from a Mixture of Fodder Galega and French Willow

УДК 636.085.052

Silage-making is a simple and reliable way to preserve the green fodder mass in a succulent state. The article regards the options for silage-making of fodder galega with the addition of French willow (rosebay willow-herb) in various ratios. The quality indicators of the finished feed have been determined. It has been revealed that the pH of all silage variants does not reach the biological limit values for the development of lactic acid bacteria (3.0 - 4.2). Nevertheless, silage variants with a French willow fraction from 15% and more have had a proportion of lactic acid from 77% to 86% in the organic acids composition in feed. The silages have generally had good indicators. Feeds with a mass fraction of French willow 15% and 25% have had 9.8 and 9.2 MJ / kg of dry matter, respectively. And silages with a proportion of French willow of 30% and more have contained more than 10 MJ / kg of dry matter in their composition. The minimum addition of French willow to the silage to meet the requirements of GOST R 55986–2014 has been 30%.

The Influence of Agricultural Methods on Formation of Agrophytocenoses of Perennial Grasses of Intensive Use in the European North of Russia

УДК 633. 2/3

The article presents the results of a four-year research on the study of agricultural methods for creating agrophytocenoses of perennial grasses for intensive use. According to the results of the studies, it has been found out that the content of seeded grass species in the grass stand has been high regardless of the species composition and method of sowing and has been 83-94.1% in the third year of use. The method of sowing has had an impact on the botanical composition of agrophytocenoses – the amount of weed vegetation has been higher with the subcover method by 1.2-1.4 times. According to the yield of 9.2-9.9 t/ha of SV, grass mixtures with reed fescue have been distinguished. Grass mixtures with three-mown use have exceeded the two-mown use in protein collecting by 12-32%, and in protein content in 1 kg of SV by 24-43%.

Influence of degrees of inbreeding on the economic and useful qualities of dairy cattle

УДК 636.2.034

Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between the method of breeding, the reproductive qualities of heifers and their subsequent milk productivity in the conditions of enterprises of the Omsk region. It was found that the best characteristics of reproductive qualities are heifers with an inbreeding coefficient of up to 6.25% or with moderate inbreeding and inseminated from 13 to 18 months of age. With increasing homozygosity of organisms, the level of milk productivity decreases. Outbred first-born heifers inseminated before 18 months of age exceed inbred female peers in milk yield by 350 kg or 5.96 %.

The comparative characteristic of the fat content of milk in cows, taking into account the season of the year

УДК 636.082.1

In dairy farming, when breeding dairy breeds of cattle, milk quality is an important factor, milk fat content in particular. According to the results of the research, on 3 farms of the Vologda region for the period from 2017 to 2019, taking into account the season of the year and basing on the comparative characteristics, high values of the mass fraction of fat in milk samples of cows have been revealed in autumn. On average, the farms have established high quality values of the mass fraction of fat that meet the state standard requirements.

Histological diagnosis and morphological characteristics of pathological changes in chronic kidney disease in the Central Asian tortoise-Testudo horsfieldii (clinical case)

УДК 619:611.018:616.61:598.13

The article describes the pathological changes in the excretory system of the Central Asian turtle. The material of the study is a puncture biopsy of the kidneys obtained under ultrasound control, assessment of the morphological structure of kidneys using classical histological techniques, and biochemical analysis. As a result violations of mineral metabolism and kidney function are revealed. When histological examination using hematoxylin-eosin staining, hyperplasia of the perivascular connective tissue of kidneys, overgrowth of the lymphoid ducts, hypertrophy and edema of the renal glomerulus, rupture of the Bowman capsule, which characterizes the chronic course of the disease is noted.

Productivity and nutritional value of pasture agrophytocenoses based on cereals and legumes

УДК 633.2.038

The paper presents the results of studying the influence of the species of perennial legumes and cereals on the productivity and nutritional value of pasture agrophytocenoses of the European North of the Russian Federation. The field experiment was started in 2017 and is still continuing. In the course of the research, it has been found that the most nutritious and highly productive, in comparison with the control variant, are the mixtures of legumes and cereals with the inclusion of festulolium or perennial ryegrass. The productivity of these grass mixtures is 8.7 t/ha and 8.4 t/ha, respectively, and significantly differs from the control variant.

Evaluating harvested feed in the Vologda Region for the presence of nitrate compounds

УДК 636.085.3

The improvement of agriculture is inextricably linked with the increase in feed production. The intensive feed production system involves using high doses of nitrogen fertilizers. This significantly increases the yield, but at the same time nitrates accumulate in soil, water and feed. Excessive amount of nitrates causes the wrong course of functioning in natural ecosystems and animal organisms, there is a decrease in the biological value of products. Meanwhile, the importance of nitrates and their impact on human health has increased recently. However, this problem has not yet lost its significance and is increasingly attracting attention of many researchers of various specialties. Currently, there is no clear agreement on the permissible amounts of nitrates in feed for farm animals and on the effect of these toxicants on metabolism.

Correlation relationships of economic characteristics in black-and-white cattle

УДК 636.082.12

The present study has been carried out for obtaining comparative correlation data between productive and reproductive characteristics of the daughters of domestic and foreign breeding bulls in the modern black-and-white population of the Vologda region. The research is based on the works of domestic and foreign scientists and information databases on 10250 black-and-white cows of the 1st calving in the Vologda breeding farms. The statistical data has been calculated in the Microsoft Excel program. A comparative analysis has revealed a slight, but reliable (P<0.001) superiority of the daughters of foreign breeding bulls according to the average indicators of economic characteristics under study. The correlation coefficient calculation between the productivity and reproduction characteristics has showed the same relationship trend in the daughters of both domestic and foreign bulls. The correlation analysis has showed a great importance of animal development when raising black-and-white cattle. The live weight at the first successful insemination positively correlates with productive and reproductive characteristics. This type of relationship is noted both in the descendants of domestic bulls and in the daughters of foreign ones. The 305-lactation-day milk yield (P < 0.001) is proved to correlate with the service period (r = 0.13-0.18) and the live weight at the first successful insemination (r = 0.10-0.13) positively and reliably. The mass fraction of fat (P≤0.05-0.001) correlates with the mass fraction of protein in milk (r = 0.20-0.22), age and live weight at the first successful insemination (r = 0.03-0.16) positively and reliably. The obtained correlation research results between the productive and reproductive characteristics of the daughters of domestic and foreign bulls can be used for improving the breeding effectiveness in the modern black-and-white cattle.

Desk02 theme