Study of fodder grain grinder rotary centrifugal type with various working items

УДК 631.363.25

The experimental studies results of fodder grain grinder rotary centrifugal type with different working bodies (knives) are presented in the article. They The optimum geometrical form of fodder grain grinder is determined taking into attention minimum energy consumption for grinding and adjusting the particle size of grain on leaving a chopper.

Investigation of Ice-Cream Air Phase with a Curd Whey NF Concentrate

УДК 663.674

The whey concentrate influence on ice-cream overrun and air bubbles size-consist has been studied. Differential curves for the density distribution of bubbles in diameter have been constructed and the quantitative variables of particle size have been determined. According to the obtained data on particle sizes the air bubbles surface area in the experimental ice-cream samples has been calculated.

Economic designing elements of dairy farming

УДК 636.2.034:338.431.2

The aspects, influencing the effective functioning of the dairy farming are considered: profitability in dairy cattle breeding, cattle breed, the territory, that must be provided with products of dairy cattle, the territory for the construction of the dairy complex. It was established, that with a high productivity of cattle, the ratio of the cost to the cost of selling the product has a dominant role in determining profitability. The permissible limits of the deviation of the profitability increase were determined. The results of a study on the economic reasonability of breeding of different cattle breeds are presented. While designing a dairy farming, it is necessary to focus on the territory that must be provided with dairy products, and the territory allocated for the construction of dairy complex.

Economic justification of using sugar beet harvesters

УДК 631.3:338.43

The article analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the main types of sugar beet combines and presents comparative economic efficiency of their use in modern conditions. Economic efficiency estimate of sugar beet combines is based on estimation of production processes, the main criterion of which is saving operating costs per unit. Economic efficiency of using sugar beet combines has been determined on the basis of calculating operating costs per unit of work, according to the data of the Tambov oblast, Michurinsky district sugar beet farms. When harvesting 1 ha of sugar beet, the highest operating costs value has been obtained in using ROPA “Euro-Tiger” combine - 6030,72 thousand RUB, and the lowest in using Gomselmash “Palesse BS624” combine --3246,42 thousand RUB., which is 42.2% lower. In present-day conditions of Russia, according to the production rate and operating costs ratio “Terra Dos” Holmer brand combine turns out to be the most efficient one from the economic point of view, since it has a more profitable over performance compared to the base modification (by 30%) judging by the operating costs ratio (by 20-26%). The research novelty consists in clarification of the methodology for determining the economic efficiency of sugar beet combines on the basis of the productivity and operational costs ratio per unit of the harvested area according to the combine brands. The practical significance consists in economic efficiency justification of using the most common sugar beet combine brands in the present-day conditions.

The efficiency of foliar dressings with nano-preparations in increasing the productivity and stability of potatoes to diseases and weeds

УДК 633.491:631.811(470.331)

As a result of complex investigations conducted in the Tver region in 2013-2015 on well-cultivated soddy medium podzolic sandy loam soil the peculiarities of forming bio-resistance and productivity in three potato varieties (Lyubava, Krasavchik, Nikulinskiy) under the influence of foliar dressings with AgBion-2 and NanoGro preparations having different working liquid concentrations have been studied. It has been revealed that for increasing potato resistance to harmful objects, foliar dressings with AgBion-2 and NanoGro preparations should be included into the technological scheme of potatoes cultivation. It will significantly reduce the number of weeds and the number of leaf and tuber diseases To get the early harvest of high quality potatoes it is recommended to cultivate the early potato variety named Lyubava and spray it in the beginning of the budding phase with Nano-Gro nanomaterial in the dose of 25 pellets/ ha, that provides the yield of tubers on the level of 26.97 t/ha with 4.02 tons of starch per hectare. To get the largest yield of high-quality tubers for long-term storage it is also recommended to cultivate the medium potato variety named Nikulinskiy using the foliar dressing of AgBion-2 nanosilver with 0.15% concentration which ensures the yield of potatoes of 30 t/ha and allows getting 5.75 tons of starch per hectare, 0.75 tons of crude protein per hectare and the least content of nitrates and heavy metals in the product.

The efficiency of exporting dairy products from the Vologda region to the Customs Union countries

УДК 338.439.4

The topicality of this research is in determining the effectiveness of exporting dairy products from milk processing plants of the Vologda region to countries abroad both near and far. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of exporting UHT milk from the Vologda region to foreign countries.

Various fertilizer system impact on the nitrogen mode features of the sandy sod-podzolic soil

УДК 631.81:631.582:445.2

Nitrogen in the sod-podzolic soils is in the minimum and its deficiency, coupled with insufficient and unstable heat regime in the region, reduces the productivity of Northern agrocenoses. On the other hand, excess of nitrogen fertilizers causes an increased mineralization of natural nitric compounds, soil deterioration and weakens natural soil restoration processes. Region’s bioclimatic conditions and its agricultural landscapes influence the particulars of the sod-podzolic soil nitrogen cycle, i.e., insignificant leaching from the topsoil, especially on fields under row crops.A longlasting field experiment based on generalization of cultivation methods has served as the basis of the complex research to study the efficacy of various mineral base fertilizer systems and to define their impact on the nitrogen mode in the sandy sod-podzolicsoils during a crop rotation link. It looks significant and burning to clear up mineral nitrogen transformation mechanisms and its migration rate in cultivated soils that have been treated with the help of various fertilizer systems. It will make it possible to develop techniques that increase crop productivity in crop rotation systems and at the same time keep up the stability of humus and nitrogen modein sod-podzolic soils of the North-Western Russia.

Forecast of dairy cattle breeding development in the Smolensk region

УДК 332.14:636.2.034(470.332)

The study has proved forecasting as a method of dairy cattle breeding development in the Smolensk region during 2017-2019. The method is based on trend modeling with indicator correction.

Growth and development of spruce undergrowth in uneven-aged birch forests in taiga middle subzone

УДК 630*2

The influence of uneven-aged birch (blueberry kind of environment vegetation) on spruce undergrowth in Syamzhenskiy district of the Vologda region has been studied. It has been established that the growth and development of spruce plantations depend on the age of the main tree stand. Coniferous undergrowth condition deteriorates with the age of birch.

Peculiarities of accounting policy formation by using computer programs

УДК 657.1.011.56

The article describes some peculiarities of accounting policy formation by using computer software for accounting. The results obtained from the study by the example of the popular computer program for bookkeeping have shown that the accounting policy elements and methods of accounting are divided into some groups: realized in the program, unrealized in the program (before entering the program the information needs to be processed by hand), realized in the program (but in documents and not in the accounting policy) and accounting methods which cannot be realized in the program. The author offers the method of accounting policy formation, taking into account the ability to apply computer software for accounting and prevent discrepancies between the enterprise’s accounting policies and real practices using the methods and techniques of accounting.

Use of ethological indices in ayrshire cattle breeding

УДК 636.

The article presents data of ethological monitoring of Ayrshire first lactation cows, which are kept in tied confinement during summer. Breeding cows according to the ethological individuality is accompanied by an increase of milk productivity indicators. Animals with high feeding activity have a 967 kg increase per lactation, compared with animals with low feeding activity. The productivity of active and ultra active cows increases by 15.6 -17,2 %, while the coefficient of lactation stability increases by 5 - 9 %, unlike the productivity of infrapassive animals.

Development of the personnel policy of the agrarian sector of the economy

УДК 631.158:005:331.108.2

The author justifies the urgency and necessity of working out a personnel policy of the agrarian sector of the economy, and emphasizes its principal features. This article considers some methodological aspects and proposes a model for the formation and evaluation of the personnel policy based on the system approach. The evaluation of the personnel policy of agricultural organizations in the region is given. The author proposes an approach to improve the methodology for evaluating investment projects, taking into account its personnel policy.

Immunogenetic markers of economically useful features in black-and-white cattle

УДК 636.22/.28.082.12

Many researches have revealed the interdependence of erythrocyte antigens with milk productivity and reproductive ability features. However, there are different antigen factors connected with economically useful features in different herds and breeds. The aim of the research is to establish interdependence of economically useful features with blood group antigens. For this purpose, the estimation of immune genetic status in black-and-white cows has been conducted, and antigen-markers of high milk productivity and animal reproductive ability have been identified. The test results of black-and-white cattle are presented according to their blood groups.

The interrelation between the higher nervous activity type of the Kholmogory breed cows and their milk productivity

УДК 636.

The presented work is the result of studying the influence of the nervous type of the Kholmogory breed cows on their milk productivity in a free stall housing system. These studies clearly demonstrate the advisability of selecting cows regarding their types of higher nervous activity. The average milk yield of animals with a balanced, strong and mobile type of higher nervous activity was 21% higher than in other animals which will make it possible to form more productive herds and increase milk production.

Exterior features and milk quality of Saanen goats

УДК 636.393.9

The purpose of this research was to determine the relation between the exterior characteristics of Saanen goats and their milk productivity. We have studied the Saanen goats population having the body development in accordance with the breed standard. For adult goats the height at the shoulder was 75.4cm as compared to the standard height of 75cm; the height at the hips - respectively 75.7 and 76cm; the body length - 80.2 and 81cm; the chest girth - 86.6 and 88cm. So, the goats showed the optimal index of lengthiness and blockiness for these animals of 109% and 107% respectively. The study has stated the interrelation between the exterior and the milk productivity of the animals. Milk of better quality with high fat and protein content is produced by goats that are mainly of average height, having long and wide body.

Effects of laser irradiation on hatchability and blood morphological composition of chicken embryos

УДК 636.5.083.39

The effect of laser radiation exposure time on the blood morphological composition and the hatchability of “the White Hubbard” cross chickens embryos has been studied. The incubation eggs have been divided into 5 groups before incubation and exposed to laser irradiation for 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. Blood for study has been taken on the 20th day of embryo development by dissecting large vessels of the neck. Counting of the blood cells has been carried out by conventional methods. As a result of laser irradiation an increase in the total number of erythrocytes and leukocytes has been established. There have been changes in the leucogram: an increase in the number of pseudo-eosinophils under 20, 40 and 50 seconds of exposure, a more than 2-fold decrease in the number of monocytes under 40 and 60 seconds of laser exposure. All changes in the blood morphological composition have been within the limits of the physiological norm for this species of animals. Laser irradiation for 20 and 30 seconds does not have a significant effect on the results of incubation, when exposed to 40 and 60 seconds the hatchability and hatchability out are significantly reduced, embryonic mortality increases. The best results of hatchability incubation have been observed with laser irradiation for 50 seconds, where hatchability has increased by 10%.

Experimental modeling of the microwave grain drying process in preparation for grinding

УДК 664.71.05

Grain drying is a complex, continuous and energy-intensive process. One of the ways to improve the quality of grain (and therefore its products) and to save energy is the use of the automatic control system of the technological process (ACS TP). The technological process of grain drying includes measuring and regulation of such indicators as moisture and temperature. These aims are achieved with the help of devices, which make it possible not only to regulate the drying process, but also to archive the technological process data for their further analysis. There has been made an experimental facility for researching the process of microwave grain drying with multifunctional system of the technological process control and information archive application using MPR-51- SHCH4 meter-controller and AC4 interface adapter, which are being OVEN firm devices. The block diagram of the improved control system of drying grain is given. Its characteristics, working principle and the experimental research methodology are described. Experimental studies on shelling and drying installation have been conducted. The test results are given in the article.

Study of Lamé formulas applicability for determining the forces of pressing the cylinders in the cylinder block of internal combustion engines

УДК 62-771

In the design of the technological process of the cylinder block sleeving in the internal combustion engine is urgent to develop a theoretical model that allows the calculation method to determine the force of pressing the sleeve into the block. The problem of determining the pressing efforts is to determine the pressure created by the preload. The solution of this problem was proposed by the French mechanic Lamé in 1828. Lame formulas are fair in a uniform distribution of tangential stress along the surface covered by the component part, that is for thick-walled cylinders. Is of interest to study the applicability of the Lamé formulas for determining the forces of pressing the cylinders into the engine block, which in the theory of materials resistance is considered to be thin-walled. The Chair of energy resources and technical services of the Vologda GMHA the experiment, which is based on the measurement for the press force of fitting sleeve into the engine cylinder block and comparison of the measurement results with results of theoretical calculations according to the Lamé formulas. Based on the results of the experiment we can conclude that for determining the forces of the cylinder block sleeving with optimum tightness is also an applicable methodology (formulas Lama), which is fair for the thick-walled cylinders.

Preparation of functional ingredients based on the encapsulation principle for the conservation of native structure of biologically active proteins

УДК 544.773.432;547.485.5

In this paper, we present the results of studies on the development of functional ingredients using the principle of encapsulation to preserve the native structure of biologically active proteins. Observations were made on the change in their mechanical properties and the amount of released encapsulated protein under conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro. The study of mechanical properties shows that the capsules become denser under conditions of a simulated “stomach”, which is due to the “shrinkage” of the biopolymer gel at low pH values. In the phase of the model “intestine”, swelling of the capsules takes place and their subsequent decay, which allows to speak about controlled release of encapsulated bioactive components. It was noted that the multilayer capsules had the greatest propensity to withstand the aggressive environment of the “model stomach” and concentrate in themselves the maximum amount of the bioactive component. It was found that protein concentration in the capsules was reduced by 20% during the passage of the “artificial stomach” phase, but 80% of the active substance was released in imitated intestinal conditions. The results of the studies show that changes in mechanical properties and swelling of encapsulated functional ingredients provide a direct link in controlling the release of biologically active substances at a particular location of the simulated human gastrointestinal tract.

Modernizing the power supply system of the tractor diesel 4C4SS (4 cylinder 4 stroke supercharger) 11.0 / 12.5 for work on ethanol-fuel emulsion

УДК 631.171

The article presents a fuel feed system for the preparation and feeding of the ethanol-fuel emulsion into the tractor diesel cylinder 4C4SS (4 cylinder 4 stroke supercharger) 11.0/12.5 (D-245.5S5). The results of testing the fuel equipment on the stand KI-22210-02M-15 have been considered. The possibility of improving the properties of fuel blends and their application in a tractor diesel has been evaluated.

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